Genes: A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA. Some genes act as instructions to make proteins whilst others do not. Only one percent of DNA is used for coding for proteins. The non coding DNA is thought to be essential in regulating the activity of cells and the turning on and off of gene transcription.  In humans genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA base pairs to more than two million DNA base pairs. Every person has two copies of each gene, one from each parent. Genes are arranged on chromosomes . Humans generally have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. 

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